Next time you’re on the freeway driving along at Edgar Allan Poe no poe’s wow shirt your window and stick your arm out and you’ll find out. That force pulling your arm back is air friction. The same force acts on you when you jump out of a moving plane. A vehicle moving through space however is in a vacuum, there’s nothing to slow you down when you step out so you retain all the momentum you had when you were onboard the space vehicle. Basically, if it’s moving at say 100 miles per minute and so are you then the relative speed between you and the ship is zero because there’s zero difference in your speeds. When you kick off perpendicular to the direction of your orbital motion you add a little bit more momentum in a different direction… so that you’re still moving in the same direction as your vehicle at 100 miles a minute and you’re moving “sideways” at 1/2 a mile per hour.
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The net result is that the ship appears to move away from Edgar Allan Poe no poe’s wow shirt, even though it (and you) is zooming around the planet at an extraordinary speed – relative to the planet. Incidentally, that’s also why vehicles can remain in orbit, and why if they want to remain in space they have to be in orbit (or actively thrusting away from earth) – they can’t just sit “still” in space. The planet’s gravity is always acting on them so they’re always falling toward the earth, but they are also moving forward at just the right speed so that they constantly “miss” the earth.